Latest in k.4.m miscellaneous

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From 2G TO 3G - The Evolution of International Cellular StandardsOct 22 2001The purpose of this paper is to examine the major factors surrouding and contributing to the creation (and success) of Europe's 2nd generation 'GSM' cellular system, and compare and contrast it to key events and recent developments in 3rd generation 'IMT-2000' ... More
An Architecture for Security and Privacy in Mobile CommunicationsOct 19 2001There is much discussion and debate about how to improve the security and privacy of mobile communication systems, both voice and data. Most proposals attempt to provide incremental improvements to systems that are deployed today. Indeed, only incremental ... More
ENUM: The Collision of Telephony and DNS PolicyOct 04 2001Oct 22 2001ENUM marks either the convergence or collision of the public telephone network with the Internet. ENUM is an innovation in the domain name system (DNS). It starts with numerical domain names that are used to query DNS name servers. The servers respond ... More
The Increased Need For FCC Merger Review In A Networked WorldOct 04 2001Recently, the FCC announced a new standard for review in mergers. Under the new standard, mass media mergers that comply with existing rules will automaticly receive approval, while those that do not will receive a more searching review. Common carrier ... More
Limits To Certainty in QoS Pricing and BandwidthOct 03 2001Advanced services require more reliable bandwidth than currently provided by the Internet Protocol, even with the reliability enhancements provided by TCP. More reliable bandwidth will be provided through QoS (quality of service), as currently discussed ... More
Electronic Commerce, Consumer Search and Retailing Cost ReductionOct 02 2001This paper explains four things in a unified way. First, how e-commerce can generate price equilibria where physical shops either compete with virtual shops for consumers with Internet access, or alternatively, sell only to consumers with no Internet ... More
Inventing E-Regulation in the US, EU and East Asia: Conflicting Social Visions of the Internet & the Information SocietySep 30 2001This paper attempts to assess the international approach to Internet policy in the context of distinctive socio-political frameworks evolving in the US, the European Union (EU), and East Asia. The comparative review will develop a set of underlying structural ... More
Prospects for Improving Competition in Mobile RoamingSep 26 2001Oct 22 2001The ability to make international roaming calls is of increasing importance to customers in Europe. This contrasts with various complaints that retail prices of roaming calls are rigid and excessive. The focus if the paper is on wholesale roaming, which ... More
Digital Arroyos: An Examination of State Policy and Regulated Market Boundaries in Constructing Rural Internet AccessSep 25 2001This focused study on state-level policy and access patterns contributes to a fuller understanding of how these invisible barriers work to structure access and define rural communities. Combining both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines ... More
Elusive Threats: Security Weaknesses of Commercial Cellular NetworksSep 25 2001Commercial cellular telecommunications networks are routinely used as key means of voice and data transport by both businesses and the Public. Despite advances in encryption and other security measures, these commercial cellular networks remain extremely ... More
Quality of service monitoring: Performance metrics across proprietary content domainsSep 25 2001Oct 27 2001We propose a quality of service (QoS) monitoring program for broadband access to measure the impact of proprietary network spaces. Our paper surveys other QoS policy initiatives, including those in the airline, and wireless and wireline telephone industries, ... More
The Role of Institutions in the Design of Communication TechnologiesSep 25 2001Apr 16 2002Communication technologies contain embedded values that affect our society's fundamental values, such as privacy, freedom of speech, and the protection of intellectual property. Researchers have shown the design of technologies is not autonomous but shaped ... More
Spectrum auctions, pricing and network expansion in wireless telecommunicationsSep 25 2001This paper examines the effects of licensing conditions, in particular of spectrum fees, on the pricing and diffusion of mobile communications services. Seemingly exorbitant sums paid for 3G licenses in the UK, Germany in 2000 and similarly high fees ... More
Bigger May Not Be Better: An Empirical Analysis of Optimal Membership Rules in Peer-To-Peer NetworksSep 25 2001Oct 01 2001Peer to peer networks will become an increasingly important distribution channel for consumer information goods and may play a role in the distribution of information within corporations. Our research analyzes optimal membership rules for these networks ... More
Standards and Intellectual Property Rights in the Age of Global Communication - A Review of the International Standardization of Third-Generation Mobile SystemSep 25 2001Oct 30 2001When the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) selected a radio access technology based on Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), sponsored by European telecommunications equipment manufactures Ericsson and Nokia, for its third-generation ... More
Universal Service in times of Reform: Affordability and accessibility of telecommunication services in Latin AmericaSep 25 2001By surveying the universal service policies in six Latin American countries, this study explores the evolution of the concept during the rollout of the telecommunication reform in the last decade. Country profiles and a set of universal service indicators ... More
Leveraging Software, Advocating Ideology: Free Software and Open SourceSep 25 2001Oct 26 2001This paper uses the software program Linux and the discourse around it in order to examine how software programs can be used to articulate and defend social and economic positions. Although I do not use the term "expression" in a strict legal sense, I ... More
The Next Frontier for Openness: Wireless CommunicationsSep 25 2001Oct 02 2001For wireless communications, the FCC has fostered competition rather than openness. This has permitted the emergence of vertically integrated end-to-end providers, creating problems of reduced hardware innovation, software applications, user choice, and ... More
Best Effort versus Spectrum Markets: Best Effort versus Spectrum Markets: The Cases of European MVNOs and (Ultra)Wideband Unlicensed ServicesSep 25 2001This paper compares two models for delivering broadband wireless services: best effort vs. QoS guaranteed services. The 'best effort' services we refer to in this paper are more commonly known as unlicensed wireless services, while the 'Quality of Service ... More
ICANN as RegulatorSep 24 2001Mar 10 2002This paper tells the story leading to ICANN's selection of seven new Internet top level domains in November 2000. In implementing proposals to expand the name space, ICANN adopted an approach far different from Jon Postel's lightweight proposals. ICANN ... More
The Influence of Policy Regimes on the Development and Social Implications of Privacy Enhancing TechnologiesSep 24 2001Oct 23 2001As privacy issues have gained social salience, entrepreneurs have begun to offer privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) and the U.S. has begun to enact privacy legislation. But "privacy" is an ambiguous notion. In the liberal tradition, it is an individualistic ... More
'Negotiated Liberalization': Stakeholder Politics and Communication Sector Reform in South AfricaSep 24 2001The paper examines the South African transition from apartheid to democracy through the lens of the reform of the communication sector. Through a set of participatory stakeholder consultative processes, the institutions of broadcasting, telecommunications, ... More
Policy for access: Framing the questionSep 24 2001Oct 20 2001Five years after the '96 Telecommunications Act, we still find precious little local facilities-based competition. In response there are calls in Congress and even from the FCC for new legislation to "free the Bells." However, the same ideology drove ... More
CyberCampaigns and Canadian Politics: Still Waiting?Sep 24 2001The early election call in the fall of 2000 provided the perfect opportunity to study the impact the Internet has had on election campaigning in Canada. With the explosion of use the Net has seen since the 1997 general election, Canadian federal parties ... More
Assessing the Effectiveness of Section 271 Five Years After the Telecommunications Act of 1996Sep 24 2001Oct 28 2001A major goal of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to promote competition in both the local exchange and long distance wireline markets. In section 271 Congress permitted the Bell Operating Companies (BOCs) to enter the long distance market only if ... More
Competition and Globalization Brazilian Telecommunications Policy at CrossroadsSep 24 2001The current pattern of competition in the Brazilian telecommunications market was defined by a regulatory reform implemented in the second half of the nineties. The telecommunications regulatory reform discussed in the paper promoted the privatization ... More
Is the Commercial Mass Media Necessary, or Even Desirable, for Liberal Democracy?Sep 24 2001Is a commercial mass media, dependent on the market for its sustenance, necessary, or even desirable, for liberal democracy? Yochai Benkler has argued that a decentralized, peer-to-peer system of communications and information is both possible with digital ... More
E PLURIBUS ENUM: Unifying International Telecommunications Networks and GovernanceSep 24 2001Oct 01 2001ENUM effectively bridges the telephone and Internet worlds by placing telephone numbers from the ITU Rec. E.164 public telecommunication numbering plan into the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) as domain names. ENUM potentially presents significant public ... More
Civic Engagement among Early Internet Adopters: Trend or Phase?Sep 24 2001Oct 27 2001This paper brings evidence to bear on the question of the long-term effects of Internet diffusion on civic engagement in geographic communities. It draws on findings from survey data collected in four U.S. towns and cities in fall 2000 where community ... More
Telecommunications and rural economies: Findings from the Appalachian regionSep 24 2001This research investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure, economic conditions, and federal and state policies and initiatives. It presents a detailed look at the telecommunications environment of the Appalachian region, particularly ... More
Value of Usage and Seller's Listing Behavior in Internet AuctionsSep 24 2001In this paper, we aim to empirically examine the value of website usage and sellers' listing behavior in the two leading Internet auctions sites, eBay and Yahoo!Auctions. The descriptive data analysis of the seller's equilibrium listing behavior indicates ... More
Realspace Sovereigns in Cyberspace: The Case of Domain NamesSep 24 2001Oct 26 2001In this piece, we take up the case of the domain name system as an example of challenges and solutions for realspace sovereigns in cyberspace. First, we analyze the 'in rem' provision of the US Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA), which ... More
The Internet and Community Networks: Case Studies of Five U.S. CitiesSep 24 2001This paper looks at five U.S. cities (Austin, Cleveland, Nashville, Portland, and Washington, DC) and explores strategies being employed by community activists and local governments to create and sustain community networking projects. In some cities, ... More
Electronic Access to Information and the Privacy Paradox: Rethinking :'Practical Obscurity'Sep 24 2001This article addresses the U.S. Supreme Court's central purpose formulation in Reporters Committee v. Department of Justice under the federal Freedom of Information Act. By examining all lower federal court opinions interpreting Reporters Committee and ... More
Asymmetric Regulation on Steroids: U.S. Competition Policy and Fiber to the HomeSep 24 2001Oct 25 2001Fiber to the Home (FTTH) describes a set of emerging technologies with the potential to affect competition in local access. On one hand, the high cost of deploying fiber to the residence suggests limitations on facilities-based competition among FTTH ... More
Pricing and Network Externalities in Peer-to-Peer Communications Networks (Draft)Sep 24 2001Oct 22 2001This paper analyzes the pricing of transit traffic in wireless peer-to-peer networks using the concepts of direct and indirect network externalities. We first establish that without any pricing mechanism, congestion externalities overwhelm other network ... More
Lead, Follow, or Go Your Own Way: Empirical Evidence Against Leader-Follower Behavior in Electronic MarketsSep 24 2001Low search costs in Internet markets can be used by consumers to find low prices, but can also be used by retailers to monitor competitors' prices. This price monitoring can lead to price matching, resulting in dampened price competition and higher prices ... More
National Information Infrastructure Development in Canada and the U.S.: Redefining Universal Service and Universal Access in the Age of Techno-Economic ConvergenceSep 24 2001This exploratory and descriptive research compares the policy-making processes and policy recommendations regarding universal service and universal access developed by the U.S. National Information Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIIAC) and the Canadian ... More
Internet Attacks: A Policy Framework for Rules of EngagementSep 24 2001Information technology is redefining national security and the use of force by state and nonstate actors. The use of force over the Internet warrants analysis given recent terrorist attacks. At the same time that information technology empowers states ... More
Indicators of Independence in Regulatory CommissionsSep 24 2001Oct 22 2001Independent regulatory commissions such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) must produce policies that reflect technical expertise, legal precedent, and stakeholder input. Given these situational imperatives, how does the FCC implement independence ... More
The Impact of Incentives in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 on Corporate StrategiesSep 24 2001Rules are necessary to provide or shape the incentives of individuals and organizations. This is particularly true when free markets lead to undesirable outcomes. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 attempted to create incentives to foster competition. ... More
Networks Unplugged: Towards A Model of Compatibility Regulation Between Information PlatformsSep 24 2001Networks Unplugged: Towards A Model of Compatibility Regulation Between Information Platforms This Article outlines a basic model for regulating interoperability between rival information platforms. In so doing, it insists that antitrust, intellectual ... More
United States v. Microsoft: A Failure of Antitrust in the New EconomySep 24 2001This paper analyzes the law and economics of United States v. Microsoft, a landmark case of antitrust intervention in network industries. [abridged]
Second-Level Digital Divide: Mapping Differences in People's Online SkillsSep 24 2001Much of the existing approach to the digital divide suffers from an important limitation. It is based on a binary classification of Internet use by only considering whether someone is or is not an Internet user. To remedy this shortcoming, this project ... More
Voice over IP in the Local Exchange: A Case StudySep 24 2001There have been a small number of cost studies of Voice over IP (VoIP) in the academic literature. Generally, they have been for abstract networks, have not been focused on the public switched telephone network, or they have not included the operating ... More
On the Use of Vickrey Auctions for Spectrum Allocation in Developing CountriesSep 24 2001In this paper, we assess the applicability of auctions based on the Vickrey second price model for allocating wireless spectrum in developing countries. We first provide an overview of auction models for allocating resources. We then examine the experience ... More
Commonalities: The R.E.A. and High-Speed Rural Internet AccessSep 24 2001This paper explores commonalities between the creation of the Rural Electrification Administration and the similar dilemma of providing an affordable infrastructure for high-speed Internet access in places where profit incentives do not exist. In the ... More
Universal service, specific services on generic networks, some logic begins to emerge in the policy areaSep 24 2001It has proved to be difficult to translate the lessons from the literature on universal service into the policy framework because of political interests and regulatory capture. Neither the USA or Europe has made a very good job of devising a clean framework ... More
India Attempts to Give a Jump-start to its Derailed Telecommunications Liberalization ProcessSep 24 2001After the 1991 economic policy made a shift from a closed economic model to a market-oriented model. The government invited private sector to participate in reforming its telecom sector. However, the government took a half-hearted approach in overhauling ... More
Geography and the Internet: Is the Internet a Substitute or a Complement for Cities?Sep 24 2001By combining persons around the world into a single market, the Internet may serve as a substitute for urban agglomeration. That is, the Internet may level the consumption playing field between large, variety-laden and small, variety-starved markets. ... More
Bringing the Internet to Schools: US and EU policiesSep 24 2001The Internet is changing rapidly the way people around the world communicate, learn, and work. Yet the tremendous benefits of the Internet are not shared equally by all. One way to close the gap of the "digital divide" is to ensure Internet access to ... More
Do Switching Costs Make Markets More or Less Competitive?: The Case of 800-Number PortabilitySep 24 2001Oct 26 2001Do switching costs reduce or intensify price competition in markets where firms charge the same price to old and new consumers? Theoretically, the answer could be either "yes" or "no," due to two opposing incentives in firms' pricing decisions. The firm ... More
Ideological and Policy Origins of the Internet, 1957-1969Sep 24 2001Oct 25 2001This paper examines the ideological and policy consensus that shaped computing research funded by the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). This historical case study ... More
Standardization versus Coverage in Wireless Telephone NetworksSep 24 2001The issue of market-based versus mandated standards has been addressed in many settings. In most settings in which network effects are present, compatibility across platforms has been a key determinant of the success or failure of a particular technology. ... More
Monopoly Power on the Web - A Preliminary Investigation of Search EnginesSep 24 2001E-Commerce challenges traditional approaches to assessing monopolistic practices due to the rapid rate of growth, rapid change in technology, difficulty in assessing market share for information products like web sites, and high degree of interconnectivity ... More
Price Increases from Online PrivacySep 24 2001Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this ... More
Globalization and Governance in Cyberspace: Mapping the Processes of Emergent Regime Formation in Global Information and Communications PolicySep 24 2001This paper develops a theoretical perspective on globalization and the Information Society and combines it with a critical usage of international regime theory as a heuristic for understanding the current historical period of transition from an international ... More
Internet TV: Business Models and Program ContentSep 23 2001Internet technology should eventually provide important improvements over established media not only in the efficiency of broadband delivery, and of particularimportance, in the efficiency of business models that can be used to collect money for that ... More
Signing Initiative Petitions Online: Possibilities, Problems and ProspectsSep 22 2001Many people expect the Internet to change American politics, most likely in the direction of increasing direct citizen participation and forcing government officials to respond more quickly to voter concerns. A recent California initiative with these ... More
Competition and Commons: The Post-Telecom Act Public Interest, in and after the AOLTW MergerSep 22 2001In asserting a competitive market environment as a justification for regulatory forbearance, the Telecommunications Act of 1996 finally articulated a clear standard for the FCC's public interest standard, one of the most protean concepts in communications. ... More
Between a rock and a hard place: assessing the application of domestic policy and South Africa's commitments under the WTO'S Basic Telecommunications AgreementSep 22 2001South Africa adopted the GATS Basic Agreement on Telecommunications and the regulatory principles in 1998. Obligations undertaken by South Africa mirrored the framework for the gradual telecommunications reform process that was begun in 1996. In the light ... More
Analyzing ENUM Service and Administration from the Bottom Up: The addressing system for IP telephony and beyondSep 22 2001ENUM creates many new market opportunities and raises several important policy issues related to the implementation and administration of the ENUM database and services. Recent World Telecommunications Policy Forum 2001 dealt with the emergence of ENUM ... More
Internet Radio: A New Engine for Content Diversity?Sep 22 2001While traditional radio stations are subject to extensive government regulations, Internet radio stations remain largely unregulated. As Internet radio usage has increased certain stakeholders have begun to argue that these Internet radio broadcasters ... More
Crisis of Public Utility Deregulation and the Unrecognized Welfare StateSep 20 2001Successful achievement of public policies requires satisfaction of conditions affecting political feasibility for policy adoption and maintenance as well as economic viability of the desired activity or enterprise. This paper discusses the difficulties ... More
Competition and Price Dispersion in International Long Distance CallingSep 19 2001Oct 17 2001This paper examines the relationship between changes in telecommunications provider concentration on international long distance routes and changes in prices on those routes. Overall, decreased concentration is associated with significantly lower prices ... More
Revenge of the Bell Heads: How the Net Heads Lost Control of the InternetSep 19 2001A dichotomy in regulatory treatment and corporate cultures exists between Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and telecommunication carriers. Telephone company executives (Bell Heads) may resent regulation, but they accept their fate and work creatively ... More
The Internet, 1995-2000: Access, Civic Involvement, and Social InteractionSep 18 2001Our research, which began fielding surveys in 1995, and which have been repeated with variation in 1996, 1997 and 2000, was apparently the first to use national random telephone survey methods to track social and community aspects of Internet use, and ... More
Conceptualising Regulatory Change - Explaining Shifts in Telecommunications GovernanceSep 18 2001Drawing on perspectives from telecommunications policy and neo-Gramscian understandings of international political economy, this paper offers an explanation and analysis of the shifting patterns of regulation which have been evident in the telecommunications ... More
Communications Convergence, Spectrum Use and Regulatory Constraints, Or Property Rights, Flexible Spectrum Use and Satellite v. Terrestrial Uses and UsersSep 13 2001As far as many consumers and businessmen and women are concerned, increasingly wireline and wireless services, including those provided by terrestrial and satellite systems, are considered to be substitutes and sometimes complements, regardless of the ... More
Is There a There There: Towards Greater Certainty for Internet JurisdictionSep 11 2001The unique challenge presented by the Internet is that compliance with local laws is rarely sufficient to assure a business that it has limited its exposure to legal risk. The paper identifies why the challenge of adequately accounting for the legal risk ... More
The Effect of Native Language on Internet UsageSep 06 2001Our goal is to distinguish between the following two hypotheses: (A) The Internet will remain disproportionately in English and will, over time, cause more people to learn English as second language and thus solidify the role of English as a global language. ... More
The Role of Incentives for Opening Monopoly Markets: Comparing GTE and BOC Cooperation with Local EntrantsSep 06 2001While the 1996 Telecommunications Act requires all incumbent local telephone companies to cooperate with local entrants, section 271 of the Act provides the Bell companies (but not GTE) additional incentives to cooperate. Using an original data set, I ... More
Voice vs Data: Estimates of Media Usage and Network TrafficSep 05 2001Sep 26 2001The popular conception is that data traffic nearly, if not already, exceeds voice traffic on backbone networks. However, the results of research reported in this paper imply that voice traffic greatly exceeds data traffic when real users are asked to ... More
What's Fit To Print: The Effect Of Ownership Concentration On Product Variety In Daily Newspaper MarketsAug 22 2001This paper examines the effect of ownership concentration on product position, product variety and readership in markets for daily newspapers. US antitrust policy presumes that mergers reduce the amount and diversity of content available to consumers. ... More